Jazz and blues vocalist Bessie Smith's powerful, soulful voice won her countless fans and earned her the title “Empress of the Blues.”
Bessie Smith was born on April 15, 1894 in Chattanooga, Tennessee. She was one of seven children. Her father, a Baptist minister, died soon after her birth, leaving her mother to raise her and her siblings. Around 1906, her mother and two of her brothers died and Smith and her remaining siblings were raised by their aunt.
It was around this time that Smith began to perform as a street singer, accompanied on the guitar by one of her younger brothers. In 1912, Smith began performing as a dancer in the Moses Stokes minstrel show, and soon thereafter in the Rabbit Foot Minstrels, of which blues vocalist Ma Rainey was a member. Rainey took Smith under her wing, and over the next decade Smith continued to perform at various theaters and on the vaudeville circuit.
The Empress of the Blues
By the early 1920s, Smith had settled down and was living in Philadelphia, and in 1923 she met and married a man named Jack Gee. That same year, she was discovered by a representative from Columbia Records, with whom she signed a contract and made her first song recordings. Among them was a track titled “Downhearted Blues,” which was wildly popular and sold an estimated 800,000 copies, propelling Smith into the blues spotlight.
With her rich, powerful voice, Smith soon became a successful recording artist and toured extensively. Going forward with an idea presented by her brother and business manager Clarence, Smith eventually bought a custom railroad car for her traveling troupe to travel and sleep in.
In her recording career, Bessie Smith worked with many important jazz performers, such as saxophonist Sidney Bechet and pianists Fletcher Henderson and James P. Johnson. With Johnson, she recorded one of her most famous songs, “Backwater Blues.”
Smith also collaborated with the legendary jazz artist Louis Armstrong on several tunes, including “Cold in Hand Blues” and “I Ain't Gonna Play No Second Fiddle.” By the end of the 1920s, Smith was the highest-paid black performer of her day, and had earned herself the title “Empress of the Blues.”
Decline and Revival
However, at the height of her success, Bessie Smith’s career began to flounder, due in part to the financial ravages of the Great Depression and a change in cultural mores. In 1929, she and Jack Gee permanently separated, and by the end of 1931 Smith had stopped working with Columbia altogether.
However, ever the dedicated performer, Smith adapted her repertoire and continued to tour. In 1933, Smith was contacted by producer John Hammond to make new recordings, which hinted at the coming Swing Era.
Death and Legacy
Over the next few years, Smith continued to perform. However, on September 26, 1937, Smith was en route to a show in Memphis, Tennessee with her companion of many years, Richard Morgan, when he sideswiped a truck and lost control of their car. Smith was thrown from the vehicle and badly injured. She died of her wounds in a Clarkdale, Mississippi hospital. She was 43.
Smith’s funeral was held in Philadelphia a week later, with thousands coming to pay their respects. She was buried in Mount Lawn Cemetery in Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania.
Since her death, Bessie Smith’s music continues to win over new fans, and collections of her songs have continued to sell extremely well over the years. She has been a primary influence for countless female vocalists–including Billie Holliday, Aretha Franklin and Janis Joplin–and has been immortalized in numerous works.
A comprehensive, acclaimed bio on her life–Bessie, by journalist Chris Albertson–was published in 1972 and expanded in 2003. An HBO film loosely based on the book is slated to air in 2015, with Queen Latifah (who also executive produced the project) portraying Smith and Mo'Nique playing Ma Rainey.
April 15, 1894
September 26, 1937
- Smith lost her father when she was still a child. She also lost her mother when she was 9 years old. Therefore, the family was in difficult financial situation. Therefore, Smith had to work on the Chattanooga Street along with her brother. They had a duet. Her bother played the guitar, while Smith sang and danced.
- Bessie Smith was hired as a dancer for the first time. She was not picked as a singer in the Stokes Troupe where her bother Clarence was involved too.
- She had her recording career in 1923. During the time, she became one of the highest paid entertainers.
- The personal life of Bessie Smith was a bit complicated after she married a security guard Jack Gee on June 7, 1923. The infidelity occurred on both sides. Smith decided to end the relationship with Gee when he had affair with Gertrude Saunders in 1929.
- Frank Walker was a talent agent who had seen her performed on stage. He was impressed. In 1923, Columbia Records signed her as a singer.
- On 26 September 1923, “Cemetery Blues” was firstly issued. She also had other records such as “Downhearted Blues” and “Gulf Coast Blues”.
- She was originally nicknamed Queen of the Blues by Columbia. But it was changed into Empress of the Blue by her PR.