Although he never became a household name, Rakim is near-universally acknowledged as one of the greatest MCs –– perhaps the greatest –– of all time within the hip-hop community.
It isn't necessarily the substance of what he says that's helped him win numerous polls among rap fans in the know; the majority of his lyrics concern his own skills and his Islamic faith.
But in terms of how he says it, Rakim is virtually unparalleled. His flow is smooth and liquid, inflected with jazz rhythms and carried off with an effortless cool that makes it sound as though he's not even breaking a sweat. He raised the bar for MC technique higher than it had ever been, helping to pioneer the use of internal rhymes –– i.e., rhymes that occurred in the middle of lines, rather than just at the end.
Where many MCs of the time developed their technique through improvisational battles, Rakim was among the first to demonstrate the possibilities of sitting down and writing intricately crafted lyrics packed with clever word choices and metaphors (of course, he also had the delivery to articulate them).
Even after his innovations were worshipfully absorbed and expanded upon by countless MCs who followed, Rakim's early work still sounds startlingly fresh, and his comeback recordings (beginning in the late '90s) only added to his legend.
Rakim was born William Griffin, Jr. on January 28, 1968, in the Long Island suburb of Wyandanch. The nephew of ‘50s R&B legend Ruth Brown, Griffin was surrounded by music from day one, and was interested in rap almost from its inception. At age 16, he converted to Islam, adopting the Muslim name Rakim Allah.
In 1985, he met Queens DJ Eric B., whose intricately constructed soundscapes made an excellent match for Rakim's more cerebral presence on the mike. With the release of their debut single, “Eric B. Is President,” in 1986, Eric B. & Rakim became a sensation in the hip-hop community, and their reputation kept growing as they issued classic tracks like “I Ain't No Joke” and “Paid in Full.”
Their first two full-length albums, 1987's Paid in Full and 1988's Follow the Leader, are still regarded as all-time hip-hop classics; Rakim's work set out a blueprint for other, similarly progressive-minded MCs to follow, and helped ensure that even after the rise of other fertile scenes around the country, East Coast rap would maintain a reputation as the center of innovative lyrical technique. The last two Eric B. & Rakim albums, 1990's Let the Rhythm Hit ‘Em and 1992's Don't Sweat the Technique, weren't quite as consistent as their predecessors, but still had plenty of fine moments.
Unfortunately, their legacy stopped at four albums. Both Eric B. and Rakim expressed interest in recording solo albums to one another, but the former, fearful of being abandoned by his partner when their contract was up, refused to sign the release.
That led to their breakup in 1992, and Rakim spent a substantial amount of time in the courts, handling the legal fallout between himself, his ex-partner, and their ex-label, MCA. His only solo output for a number of years was the track “Heat It Up,” featured on the 1993 soundtrack to the Mario Van Peebles film Gunmen.
Moreover, a reshuffling at MCA effectively shut down production on Rakim's solo debut, after he'd recorded some preliminary demos. Finally, Rakim got a new contract with Universal, and toward the end of 1997 he released his first solo record, The 18th Letter (early editions contained the bonus disc Book of Life, a fine Eric B. & Rakim retrospective).
Anticipation for The 18th Letter turned out to be surprisingly high, especially for a veteran rapper whose roots extended so far back into hip-hop history; yet thanks to Rakim's legendary reputation, it entered the album charts at number four, and received mostly complimentary reviews. His follow-up, The Master, was released in 1999 and failed to duplicate its predecessor's commercial success, barely debuting in the Top 75.
Moreover, while The Master received positive reviews in some quarters, others seemed disappointed that Rakim's comeback material wasn't reinventing the wheel the way his early work had, and bemoaned the lack of unity among his array of different producers.
Seeking to rectify the latter situation, Rakim signed with Dr. Dre's Aftermath label in 2001, and the two began recording a new album early the next year, to be titled Oh My God. In the meantime, to help heighten anticipation for the summit between two legends, Rakim guested on the single “Addictive” by female R&B singer and Aftermath labelmate Truth Hurts; “Addictive” hit the Top Ten in the summer of 2002, marking the first time Rakim had visited that territory since he and Eric B. appeared on Jody Watley's “Friends” in 1989.
Disagreements between Dre and Ra, however, prevented the album from coming out, though the rapper was able to retain the tracks he had made with the producer. For the next couple of years, Rakim continued to talk about the record, since retitled The Seventh Seal, even going so far as to promise a release on July 7, 2007.
The date came and went however, without any signs of a full length, though, in early 2008, The Archive: Live, Lost & Found, a mostly live album that also contained four new previously unreleased songs, hit shelves. The Seventh Seal finally did arrive a year later on the SMC label.
In 2012, Rakim announced that he and Eric B. will release a 25th anniversary edition of their 1987 album Paid in Full, which will contain new tracks recorded by Eric B. & Rakim, by the end of 2012; Rakim announced he would release a new solo album by the end of 2012. He performed at the annual Roots’ Picnic in Philadelphia in June. In an interview with The Detroit Free Press he announced he was in the studio with Pharrell Williams working on a new album set to be released in 2013, saying the first single will be released before the end of the year.
On September 24, 2013, he released a collaborative single with DMX entitled “Don't Call Me”.
In 2014, Rakim is featured on the collaborative single with American rock band Linkin Park, titled “Guilty All the Same”. The song was released on March 6, 2014 under Warner Bros. Records, as the first single from their sixth studio album, titled The Hunting Party. He contributed his rap vocals during the bridge for the main version of the song; however, he is not featured on a radio edit of the song. The song was officially released on March 7, 2014, for digital download.
On April 27, 2015, Rakim announced he was working on a new album and planned to release it in the middle or end of 2015. He said “This is one of those albums where I can have fun. My last album, The Seventh Seal, was somewhat of a conscious album. I wanted to make a statement on that album.”
On October 20, 2016, it was announced via Twitter that Rakim has reunited with Eric B. after 23 years of dissolution. The duo teased a potential reunion tour the next morning, hosting a poll for the fans to give their opinion on what city Eric B. & Rakim should start the tour. Four locations were the potential candidates: New York City, Las Vegas, London, and Australia. Since the announcement of the reunion, fans have speculated if the two will drop a new studio album in the near future.
In late June 2018, a new song, “King's Paradise”, was released on the Luke Cage: Season 2 soundtrack. Rakim performed the song for the first time on NPR's Tiny Desk Concerts series along with former A Tribe Called Quest member Ali Shaheed Muhammad and producer Adrian Younge.
January 28, 1968
- Rakim attended the Wyandanch High School, where he played the baritone saxophone for the school band. He also was an active member of a number of new rap groups at school, including ‘The Love Brothers’ and the ‘Almighty 5 MCs’.
- Even at that early age, he showed a precocious musical talent as is evident from a recording of a 1985 school performance along with Biz Markie who later became a star himself. This is perhaps the first performance where he is billed as Rakim.
- Paid in Full, their debut album was released on July 7, 1987, on ‘4th & B'way Records’. The album that had five singles, including Eric B. Is President, peaked on Billboard 200 chart at #58.
- In 2000, Rakim signed on with another record label, Aftermath Entertainment, owned by rapper, Dr. Dre; however, due to delays for various reasons, the planned album Oh, My God was never released.
- In a bid to work more leisurely, Rakim stopped touring in favor of occasional gigs. He announced his intention to release The Seventh Seal, a new studio album in 2006, however, the project got delayed for three years, and was overtaken by The Archive: Live, Lost & Found, a live album in 2008.
- Rakim is credited with expanding the vocabulary of rap music and introducing complex similes and metaphors in an age when many of his counterparts lacked the necessary imagination.
- Besides his musical prowess, he was also an exceptional athlete and at one time aspired to be a professional footballer.